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Know Your Risk Of Coronary Heart Disease & Prevent A Heart Attack

posted on 8/24/2016 Facebook Facebook

Coronary heart disease (CHD), is one of the leading cause of heart attack among men and women globally. The disease is thought, to begin with damage to the coronary artery, sometimes as early as childhood, according to experts. Several factors have been studied to cause extensive damage to the arteries and serve as the many causes of CHD. However, the good news is that 80-90% of CHD is preventable. The risk of CHD is principally influenced by our genetics and lifestyle.

While we cannot change our genetics, we can mitigate genetic predisposition with healthy dietary and lifestyle choices. This is especially relevant if you have a family history of CHD. However, knowing your genetics can help you identify the specific root cause of CHD and the most effective interventions.

About 10% of CHD cases can be attributed to monogenic or familial diseases. Those with specific genetic mutations have significantly elevated levels of LDL cholesterol also called as bad cholesterol, which leads to a faster buildup of lipid plaques in their arteries. Many of these people will suffer a heart attack before age 50.

Genes & CHD Risk
The majority of risk variants are associated with genes involved in lipid transportation, blood clotting, blood vessel function, inflammation processes and/or metabolism.

1. People with risk variants within lipid transportation and metabolism genes, such as APOE, APOB, LPL, APOA5 and PCSK9, have an impaired ability to clean up lipids from blood. In such individuals, limiting total fat and cholesterol in the diet is recommended.

2. People with risk variants in their MTHFR gene often have more homocysteine in their blood which can damage blood vessel walls and increase risks of atherosclerosis and blood clotting. These people must make sure to get enough folate from folate-rich foods, such as green vegetables and fortified grains and cereals. Riboflavin, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12 are also important to keep homocysteine levels in check.

3. People with risk variants in genes associated with blood clot formation, such as LPA and ABO, will benefit from anti-coagulation approaches. Low-dose aspirin has been demonstrated to reduce heart attack risk. Many fruits and vegetables, such as berries, bell peppers, and cantaloupe, contain the active ingredient in aspirin, called salicylic acid. Red wine also contains a significant amount. Reducing omega-6 and increasing omega-3 fatty acids in your diet can also shift coagulation balance to reduce blood clot formation and heart attack risk.

Knowing your risk can assist in prevention before a CHD diagnosis or even a heart attack catches you off guard. Genetic testing can help you find if you have the above-mentioned mutations in your genetic code which increase your risk. Once you know your risk profile you can take necessary steps to mitigate it and protect your health. Speak to our counselors today to know about a personal genomics test for early disease assessment. You can reach us at: info@positivebioscience.com or 1800-3070-6727 (Toll-free) 

References:

1.Cassar A, Holmes DR Jr, Rihal CS, Gersh BJ. Chronic coronary artery disease: diagnosis and management. Mayo Clin Proc. 2009 Dec;84(12):1130-46. doi: 10.4065/mcp.2009.0391. Review. PubMed PMID: 19955250; PubMed Central PMCID:PMC2787400.

2.Whitfield JB. Genetic insights into cardiometabolic risk factors. Clin Biochem Rev. 2014 Feb;35(1):15-36. Review. PubMed PMID: 24659834; PubMed Central PMCID:PMC3961996.

3.ZHANG L-N, LIU P-P, ZHOU J, et al. Positive correlation between variants of lipid metabolism-related genes and coronary heart disease. Molecular Medicine Reports. 2013;8(1):260-266. doi:10.3892/mmr.2013.1454.

4.Peden JF, Farrall M. Thirty-five common variants for coronary artery disease: the fruits of much collaborative labour. Hum Mol Genet. 2011 Oct 15;20(R2):R198-205. doi: 10.1093/hmg/ddr384. Epub 2011 Aug 29. Review. PubMed PMID: 21875899; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3179381.

5.Clarke R, Bennett DA, Parish S, Verhoef P, Dötsch-Klerk M, Lathrop M, Xu P, Nordestgaard BG, Holm H, Hopewell JC, Saleheen D, Tanaka T, Anand SS, Chambers JC, Kleber ME, Ouwehand WH, Yamada Y, Elbers C, Peters B, Stewart AF, Reilly MM, Thorand B, Yusuf S, Engert JC, Assimes TL, Kooner J, Danesh J, Watkins H, Samani NJ, Collins R, Peto R; MTHFR Studies Collaborative Group. Homocysteine and coronary heart disease: meta-analysis of MTHFR case-control studies, avoiding publication bias. PLoS Med. 2012 Feb;9(2):e1001177. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001177. Epub 2012 Feb 21. PubMed PMID: 22363213; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3283559.

6.Anand SS, Xie C, Paré G, Montpetit A, Rangarajan S, McQueen MJ, Cordell HJ, Keavney B, Yusuf S, Hudson TJ, Engert JC; INTERHEART Investigators. Genetic variants associated with myocardial infarction risk factors in over 8000 individuals from five ethnic groups: The INTERHEART Genetics Study. Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2009 Feb;2(1):16-25. doi: 10.1161/CIRCGENETICS.108.813709. Epub 2009 Jan 23. PubMed PMID: 20031563.

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