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Diabetes and how much you know about it?

posted on 11/16/2018 Facebook Facebook

14th day of November ismarked as World Diabetes Day. India is a diabetic capital of worldwith 8.7% population from age group 20-60yr is diabetic. Diabetes isa metabolic disease characterized by loss of control over blood sugarlevels. Since the symptoms of diabetes develop over a period of time,they could go unnoticed for months or even years. Early detection andtreatment of the condition can have a profound impact on yourlong-term health.

Types of Diabetes

Type I Diabetes –Characterized by very little or no insulin production by islets cellsof pancreas. Cause of type I is genetic or non-genetic; theunderlying mechanism involves an autoimmune destruction of theinsulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. Onset is typically inchildhood or early adulthood there for termed as juvenile diabetes.There is no prevention for type I diabetes; Insulin treatment isrequired for survival. Chronic complications include diabeticketoacidosis and diabetic coma. Long-term complications include heartdisease, stroke, kidney failure, foot ulcers and damage to the eyes.Struggle is real in balancing the blood sugar and insulin levels.

Type II Diabetes –Characterized by high blood sugar, insulin resistance and relativelack of insulin. Cause is mostly excessive body weight with lack ofexercise. Type II shares about 90% cases of total diabetes casesreported. This is a chronic condition but treatable with medicationsand lifestyle changes. Type II diabetes involves multiple genes; butis found to have small contribution in cause of disease. Itprogressively affects other body functions increasing risk ofNeuropathy, Nephropathy, Retinopathy and cardiovascular conditions. Management of type 2 diabetes focuses on lifestyle interventions,lowering other cardiovascular risk factors, and maintaining bloodglucose levels in the normal range.

Maturity Onset Diabetes of Young(MODY) – Commonly known as monogenic diabetes which occurs dueto defect in any autosomal dominant gene resulting in diabeticcondition.  Withimproved research and cases studies MODY is now used as a synonym fordominantly inherited, monogenic defects of insulin secretionoccurring at any age, and no longer includes any forms of type 2diabetes. MODY contributes very less in overall diagnosed cases fordiabetes. Management of such diabetes differs from patient topatient.

Latent Autoimmune Diabetes ofAdults (LADA) – It is Diabetes Mellitus Type1 that occurs inadulthood, with slow course of symptoms than type 1 diabetesdiagnosed in juveniles. The diagnosis is based on the finding ofhyperglycemia together with the clinical impression that insulin isnot produced at all by islet cell than insulin resistance. Signs andsymptoms are usually same as Type II diabetes so LADA is oftenmisdiagnosed in initial phase of onset. Treatment usually involvesexogenous insulin to control glucose levels, prevent furtherdestruction of residual beta cells, and reduce the possibility ofdiabetic complications.

Diabetes is aserious, chronic condition and symptoms should not be ignored. Whilediabetes itself is manageable, its complications can severely impacton daily living, and some can be fatal if not treated immediately.

By:Ruchi Bhajeewala, Genetic Counselor, Positive Bioscience

Disclaimer:The opinions expressed in this blog are representative of the authorand may not express the views of Positive Bioscience. This blog isintended for education and information for the general public. Beforemaking any medical decisions a medical professional must beconsulted. All rights reserved. Image adapted from internet.

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