Colorectal cancer is one of the leading cause of cancer deaths
in India, with an estimated 64,000 new cases and 48,000 deaths anticipated in 2016 (Globocan 2016 ).
Survival in metastatic colorectal cancer has more than doubled
in last two decades due to advent of more chemotherapy options and with the availability of newer biologics.
The main histologic subtype of colorectal cancer is adenocarcinoma.
Colorectal adenocarcinomas arise through the acquisition of a series of mutations that occur over the space of many years,
and results in the evolution of normal epithelium to adenoma to carcinoma to metastasis.
In the past two decades, there has been increasing recognition
that some somatic mutations may be prognostic or predictive markers for specific therapies available in colorectal cancer.
These mutations involve genes such as KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA, AKT1,
SMAD4, PTEN, NRAS, BRCA1, BRCA2 and TGFBR2
Furthermore, there has been increasing recognition that some of
these mutant gene products may be targets for drug development.